4.6 Plastic flow: rail end batter
In jointed track there is an irregularity as a result not only of the joint itself but also of the relatively low stiffness of the bolted joint. This irregularity gives rise to high dynamic loading. Material also flows more readily because of the poor constraint of each rail end by the adjoining rail. Rail end batter is the result of high loads and poor constraint.
This condition is best rectified by welding the rails to a satisfactory standard.